行业

兽医

人畜共患病是通过与病毒,细菌,寄生虫和真菌感染的动物直接或间接接触而传播的。导致个体基因突变,激活和沉默,细菌的基因重组,结合,转化和转导的微生物变化也会导致这种疾病从野生动植物库中传播(4)

当兽医诊断、治疗或研究医疗状况以改善动物的健康时,他们暴露在人畜共患疾病的危险中。多达18%的狗咬伤和80%的猫咬伤是由有氧和厌氧细菌混合感染的(5)。兽医人员所遭受的动物造成的伤害是常见的,在农村地区由野生动物和宠物造成的职业伤害中占大多数。

美国疾病控制中心(CDC)报告称,估计75%的新发传染病源于病毒(6)。在每4种新出现的传染病中,有3种起源于动物(2)

总的来说,人畜共患疾病每年造成至少24亿人患病和220万人死亡(3)。人畜共患疾病的一些例子包括埃博拉、狂犬病、Q热、禽流感(H5N1)、MERS Cov、猴痘、SARS和最近的COVID-19(7)

在会诊期间以及清洁和消毒活动中,手套可以减少在接触动物体液的第一时间传播的风险。这个行业的性质和医疗保健一样重要;因此,在选择手套的时候不能有任何妥协。

建议专题


保护他的同时也要保护
自己!


消息来源:美国动物医院协会(8)

消息来源:美国动物医院协会(8)

消息来源:美国动物医院协会(8)

资料来源:加拿大抗生素耐药性委员会(9)

资料来源:加拿大抗生素耐药性委员会(9)

参考文献

  1. WORTINGER A.,
    Today’s Veterinary Nurse. Zoonosis: What Is All The Fuss About?, (Published on March/April 2016), [https://todaysveterinarynurse.com/articles/zoonosis-what-is-all-the-fuss-about/#:~:text=More%20than%20800%20zoonotic%20pathogens%20are%20known%20to,in%20contact%20with%20infected%20wild%20animals%20or%20fomites.]
  2. 美国疾病控制与预防中心和美国新兴动物传染病中心,
    Zoonotic Diseases, (14th July 2017), [https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/basics/zoonotic-diseases.html]
  3. HEALTH FOR ANIMALS, (2020),
    Preventing Disease In Animals Doesn’t Only Protect Their Wellbeing – It’s One Of The Most Effective Steps We Can Take In Protecting Our Own Health,
    [https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/basics/zoonotic-diseases.html]
  4. KRUSE, H., KIRKEMO, A., & HANDELAND, K., (2004),
    Wildlife As Source Of Zoonotic Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Factors Influencing The Epidemiology Of Zoonoses With A Wildlife Reservoir. 10(12), 2067-2072.,
    [https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1012.040707]
  5. 国家公共卫生兽医协会兽医感染控制委员会,
    Compendium Of Veterinary Standard Precautions For Zoonotic Disease Prevention In Veterinary Personnel. JAVMA 2015; 247(11):1252-1277; correction JAVMA 2016;248(2):171., (Published on 15th January 2016),
    [http://www.nasphv.org/Documents/VeterinaryStandardPrecautions.pdf]
  6. CHOMEL BB, BELOTTO A, & MESLIN F.,
    Emerging Infectious Diseases. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, And Emerging Zoonoses. 2007;13(1):6. doi:10.3201/eid1301.060480, (Published on 28th June 2010),
    [https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/1/06-0480_article]
  7. 美国疾病控制与预防中心和美国新兴动物传染病中心),
    COVID-19 And Animals,
    [https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html]
  8. AAHA INFECTION CONTROL, PREVENTION AND BIOSECURITY GUIDELINE, (Viewed on 13th January 2021),
    5 Ways Diseases Are Spread,
    [https://www.aaha.org/globalassets/02-guidelines/infection-control/5waysdiseasesarespread.pdf]

    5 Disinfection Myths,
    [https://www.aaha.org/globalassets/02-guidelines/infection-control/aaha5-disinfection-myths.pdf]

    9 Common Disinfection Mistakes,
    [https://www.aaha.org/globalassets/02-guidelines/infection-control/9_common_disinfection_mistakes2.pdf]
  9. 加拿大抗生素耐药性委员会,
    Infection Prevention And Control Best Practices For Small Animal Veterinary Clinics, Page 24,25, & 27 (2008),
    [https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/files/2008/04/CCAR-Guidelines-Final2.pdf]